White Papers

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ATTENTION: For instructions on how to properly link to these white papers. click here 12 result(s) found.
Number Title & Abstract
Pdf
WP-286 v0
Applying Natural Gas Engine Generators to Hyperscale Data Centers
Power capacity shortages, a desire to be independent from the grid, and increasing pressure to reduce emissions, are all drivers for having self-generating power on site. Providing a reliable, environmentally-friendly power supply, however, can be challenging. We will show that natural gas-fired, on-site generation power plants for either backup or primary power supply functions, can be an attractive alternative to diesel-based power plants. We will explain the technical requirements and design adaptations needed for hyper-scale data centre applications and will compare our proposal to traditional diesel generation power plants. Finally, we explain how to extend the benefits of gas-engine technology and turn the generation plant into a revenue-generating asset.
Pdf
WP-207 v0
Design and Specification for Safe and Reliable Battery Systems for Large UPS
A properly designed UPS battery solution is important for safe and reliable operation. This paper describes the main components and functions of a battery system, and discusses the reasons why vendor pre-engineered battery solutions are optimal. In cases where pre-engineered solutions don’t meet the requirements, vendor-engineered solutions are next best. If third party custom battery solutions must be used, design guidelines are provided to ensure a safe and reliable design.
Pdf
WP-278 v0
Three Types of Edge Computing Environments and their Impact on Physical Infrastructure Selection
Edge computing deployments are on the rise, as more and more use cases are conceived for local compute, storage, and networking. Although there are fundamental needs of all edge compute sites to ensure availability, environmental differences can be significant which impact the specific attributes of the systems you deploy. It’s important to understand characteristics like ambient temperature & humidity conditions, security / access of the space, and purpose of the space, as these parameters drive your choice of physical infrastructure. Sites with greater business risks warrant more robust infrastructure. In this paper, we define three types of environments for micro data centers: (1) IT environments (2) commercial & office environments, and (3) industrial & harsh environments. We discuss the challenges of each and share best practices for physical infra-structure deployments for each environment.
Pdf
WP-282 v0
Capital Cost Analysis of Immersive Liquid-Cooled vs. Air-Cooled Large Data Centers
There are several known benefits of choosing liquid cooling over traditional air cooling including energy savings. Capital cost, however, is viewed as a common obstacle. In this paper, we first demonstrate that at a like-for-like rack density of 10 kW in a 2 MW data center, the data center capex is roughly equal for both a traditional air-cooled data center and a chassis-based immersive liquid cooled data center. Because high density compaction is a key benefit of liquid cooling, we also quantify the capex difference when liquid cooling is deployed at 20 kW/rack and 40 kW/rack for the same capacity data center. The result is 10% and 14% capex savings, respectively.
Pdf
WP-281 v0
Essential Guidance on DCIM for Edge Computing Infrastructure
The lack of staff or “lights out” nature of many local IT and mobile edge computing (MEC) sites makes operations & maintenance a challenge. This struggle worsens as the number of sites increase. How do you maintain IT resiliency in a cost-effective way under these conditions? It is not practical to staff each location with trained personnel. The answer lies, in large part, on data center infrastructure management (DCIM) software. In this paper we describe essential DCIM functions for small, unmanned edge computing sites and attributes of next-generation DCIM solutions best optimized for that type of environment. We also provide practical advice on how to get started with DCIM to better ensure its value is realized.
Pdf
WP-283 v1
A Quantitative Comparison of UPS Monitoring and Servicing Approaches Across Edge Environments
A fleet of single-phase UPSs distributed geographically across many edge sites presents unique challenges when it comes to monitoring and servicing. In this paper we present key considerations when deciding between managing the fleet of UPSs yourself vs. outsourcing that responsibility to a third-party vendor or partner. A tool is also presented that provides a framework for discussion on quantifying the costs associated with each alternative. We walk through four scenarios and demonstrate how key drivers like age distribution of the fleet and cost of downtime influence which approach makes financial sense.
Pdf
WP-274 v1
Monetizing Energy Storage in the Data Center
Over the last several years, the electric utility markets have seen significant changes in the mix of generation supporting the grid. In particular, traditional generating forms such as coal, nuclear, and even natural gas are being replaced by intermittent generation sources such as wind and solar. Because of the increasing penetration of these intermittent sources, and their lack of controlled dispatchability, other fast-acting energy sources are becoming even more valuable in balancing supply and demand. This is one reason why utilities are increasingly providing financial incentives to their customers to more closely balance real-time supply and demand. Due to their generous capacity of underused UPS batteries, data centers are a prime candidate to take advantage of these incentives. In this paper, we describe approaches data center operators can use to monetize their UPS energy storage and explain the modes of UPS operation required for each method.
Pdf
WP-287 v1
Industry 4.0: Minimizing Downtime Risk with Resilient Edge Computing
Industry 4.0 makes manufacturing “smart” through emerging technology innovations such as data analytics, autonomous robotics, and AI. These technologies drive increased productivity and performance throughout the value chain. These data-driven innovations require information technology (IT) systems deployed on-premise, often referred to as edge IT or edge computing. This edge IT can increase the risk of downtime for automation systems in some cases. Choosing IT enclosures designed for manufacturing environments and investing in proper power and cooling infrastructure can address the unique challenges of edge IT deployments in manufacturing environments. In this paper, we describe manufacturing environments, the cost of downtime, and the unique challenges in deploying industrial edge IT. We also provide best practices to ensure resilient edge computing by minimizing the risk of downtime.
Pdf
WP-276 v1
Switching Transients and Surge Protection for MV Transformers in Data Centers
Voltage transients in MV power systems have been observed to contribute to failures of both power and instrument transformers in data centers in recent years. This white paper provides a background regarding the nature of the transient problems, as well as a discussion of factors that may put transformers at risk. Several common solutions are available to help safeguard transformers, and each of these is discussed along with some of the pros/cons of each solution type.
Pdf
WP-284 v1
Considerations for Selecting a Lithium-ion Battery System for UPSs and Energy Storage Systems
“Why do these batteries cost more?”, “How large are these batteries?” and “How long will these batteries last?” are some of the more common questions posed from UPS and energy storage stakeholders. These questions increase in importance and complexity as the industry transitions from VRLA to lithium-ion batteries. This paper does not teach you how to specify or design a battery system, but rather it explains the key variables that drive battery decisions. Having this knowledge also prepares you for vendor discussions, especially when you’re presented with trade-offs. Informed battery decisions lead to optimized solutions that drive long-term value.
Pdf
WP-237 v1
Digital Remote Monitoring and Dispatch Services’ Impact on Edge Computing and Data Centers
Power and cooling infrastructure for edge computing and data center sites have roughly 3 times more data points / notifications today than it did 10 years ago. Traditional remote monitoring services have been available for over 10 years but were not designed to support this amount of data monitoring and the associated alarms, let alone extract value from the data. This paper explains how seven trends are re-defining remote monitoring and field service dispatch service requirements and how this will lead to improvements in operations and maintenance of IT installations.
Pdf
WP-15 v1
Watts and Volt-Amps: Powerful Confusion
This note helps explain the differences between Watts and VA and explains how the terms are correctly and incorrectly used in specifying power protection equipment.