Technical FAQs

# Electrical Formulas and Conversions

Issue:
Electrical Formulas and Conversions.

Product line:

Environment:

Cause:

Install, Repair.

Resolution:

Conversion Formulas

Area of Circle = pr2

Breakeven Dollars = Overhead Cost \$/Gross Profit %

Busbar Ampacity AL = 700A Sq. in. and CU = 1000A Sq. in.

Centimeters = Inches x 2.54

Inch = 0.0254 Meters

Inch = 2.54 Centimeters

Inch = 25.4 Millimeters

Kilometer = 0.6213 Miles

Length of Coiled Wire = Diameter of Coil (average) x Number of Coils x p

Lightning Distance in Miles = Seconds between flash and thunder/4.68

Meter = 39.37 Inches

Mile = 5280 ft, 1760 yards, 1609 meters, 1.609 km

Millimeter = 0.03937 Inch

Selling Price = Estimated Cost \$/(1 - Gross Profit %)

Speed of Sound (Sea Level) = 1128 fps or 769 mph

Temp C = (Temp F - 32)/1.8

Temp F = (Temp C x 1.8) + 32

Yard = 0.9144 Meters

Electrical Formulas Based on 60 Hz

Capacitive Reactance (XC) in Ohms = 1/(2p f C)

Effective (RMS) AC Amperes = Peak Amperes x 0.707

Effective (RMS) AC Volts = Peak Volts x 0.707

Efficiency (percent) = Output/Input x 100

Efficiency = Output/Input

Horsepower = Output Watts/746

Inductive Reactance (XL) in Ohms = 2p f L

Input = Output/Efficiency

Neutral Current (Wye) = A2 + B2 + C2 - (AB + BC + AC)

Output = Input x Efficiency

Peak AC Volts = Effective (RMS) AC Volts x 2

Peak Amperes = Effective (RMS) Amperes x 2

Power Factor (PF) = Watts/VA

VA (apparent power) = Volts x Ampere or Watts/Power Factor

VA 1-Phase = Volts x Amperes

VA 3-Phase = Volts x Amperes x 3

Watts (real power) Single-Phase = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor

Watts (real power) Three-Phase = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 3

Parallel Circuits

Note 1: Total resistance is always less than the smallest resistor

RT = 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 +...)

Note 2: Total current is equal to the sum of the currents of all parallel resistors

Note 3: Total power is equal to the sum of power of all parallel resistors

Note 4: Voltage is the same across each of the parallel resistors

Series Circuits

Note 1: Total resistance is equal to the sum of all the resistors

Note 2: Current in the circuit remains the same through all the resistors

Note 3: Voltage source is equal to the sum of voltage drops of all resistors

Note 4: Power of the circuit is equal to the sum of the power of all resistors

Transformer Amperes

Secondary Amperes 1-Phase = VA/Volts

Secondary Amperes 3-Phase = VA/Volts x 3

Secondary Available Fault 1-Phase = VA/(Volts x %impedance)

Secondary Available Fault 3-Phase = VA/(Volts x 3 x %Impedance)

Delta 4-Wire: Line Amperes = Phase (one winding) Amperes x 3

Delta 4-Wire: Line Volts = Phase (one Winding) Volts

Delta 4-Wire: High-Leg Voltage (L-to-G) = Phase (one winding) Volts x 0.5 x 3

Wye: Line Volts = Phase (one winding) Volts x 3

Wye: Line Amperes = Phase (one winding) Amperes

Voltage Drop

VD (1-Phase) = 2KID/CM

VD (3-Phase) = 3 KID/CM

CM (1-Phase) = 2KID/VD

CM (3-Phase) = 3 KID/VD

Code Rules

Breaker/Fuse Ratings – 240.6(A)

Conductor Ampacity – 310.15 and Table 310.16

Equipment Grounding Conductor – 250.122

Grounding Electrode Conductor – 250.66

Motor Conductor Size – 430.22 (Single) 430.24 (Multiple)

Motor Short-Circuit Protection – 430.52

Transformer Overcurrent Protection – 450.3

p (Pi) = (3.142 approximately), 2 = 1.414 (approximately), 3 = 1.732 (approximately), f = Frequency, r = radius, d = diameter, C = Capacitance (farads),

L = Inductance (henrys), CM = Circular Mils (Chapter 9, Table 8), VD = Volts Drop, K75°C = (12.9 ohms CU) (21.2 ohms AL), I = Amperes of load, D = Distance one way